Existem diferenças na prática e na motivação entre alunos iniciantes tocando diferentes instrumentos musicais?
Palavras-chave:Gênero, Idade, Instrumentos, Motivação, Prática, Música
Há um número considerável de pesquisas sobre a prática instrumental e a motivação musical. Este trabalho teve como objetivo ampliar a pesquisa nesta temática investigando as relações quanto à prática e à motivação de alunos iniciantes de diferentes instrumentos. Aproximadamente 500 instrumentistas e cantores de nível elementar responderam a um questionário com tópicos variados focalizando o tempo gasto praticando o instrumento, as estratégias da prática instrumental (ou vocal), a organização da prática, a motivação para a prática, o apoio recebido para tocar um instrumento, as autocrenças, a identidade musical, o prazer da performance e as aspirações musicais. Os participantes, que foram divididos em sete grupos instrumentais (cordas, sopro, metais, piano/instrumentos de teclado, violão, bateria e voz), responderam ao questionário em uma escala Likert de sete pontos. A análise multivariada foi realizada em relação ao tempo gasto praticando, às estratégias de prática e às atitudes frente à prática e à motivação. As análises consideraram o grupo instrumental, a idade e o gênero, mostrando a complexa relação entre eles. Os resultados são discutidos em termos de suas implicações para o ensino.
ABELES, H.F. Are Musical Instrument Gender Associations Changing? Journal of Research in Music Education, v. 57, n. 2 9.127-139, 2009.
ASMUS, E.P. (1994). Motivation in music teaching and learning. The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, v.5, p. 5-32, 1994.
AUSTIN, J.R.; RENWICK, J.; MCPHERSON, G.E. Developing Motivation. In G.E. MCPHERSON (ed). The child as musician: A handbook of musical development, p 213-238. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.
AUSTIN, J.R.; VISPOEL, W.P. How American adolescents interpret success and failure in classroom music: Relationships among attributional beliefs, self-concepts and achievement. Psychology of Music, v. 26, p. 26-45, 1998.
BAKKER, A.B. Flow among music teachers and their students: The crossover of peak experiences. Journal of Vocational Education, v. 66 n. 1, p. 26-44, 2005.
BARRY, N.H. The effects of practice strategies, individual differences in cognitive style, and gender upon technical accuracy and musicality of student instrumental performance. Psychology of Music, v. 20, p. 112-123, 1992.
BURLAND, K.; DAVIDSON, J. W. Training the talented. Music Education Research, v.4, n.1, p.121–40, 2002.
CASSIE, V.K. Music makers: strings – teaching strategies for beginner orchestra class: Integrating seating arrangements and flow experience. Canadian Music Educator, v.49, n.4, p.50-51, 2008.
COSTA-GIOMI, E.; FLOWERS, P.J.; SASAKE, W. Piano lessons of beginning students who persist or drop out: Teacher behavior, student behavior and lesson progress. Journal of Research in Music Education, v.33, n.3, pp.234-247, 2005.
CREECH, A. The role of the family in supporting learning. In S. HALLAM; I. CROSS; M. THAUT (eds) Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, p. 295-306, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2009.
CREECH, A.; HALLAM, S. Parent-teacher-pupil interactions in instrumental music tuition: a literature review. British Journal of Music Education, v.20, n.1, p.29-44, 2003.
CREECH, A.; HALLAM, S. Learning a musical instrument: the influence of interpersonal interaction on outcomes for school-aged pupils. Psychology of Music, v.39, n.1, p.102-122, 2011.
CREECH, A., et al. From music student to professional: The process of transition. British Journal of Music Education, v.25, n3, p.315-331, 2008.
DAVIDSON, J.W. et al. Characteristics of music teachers and the progress of young instrumentalists. Journal of Research in Music Education, v.46, p.141-160, 1998.
DWECK, C.S. Motivational processes affect learning. American Psychologist, v.41, p.1040-1048, 1986.
DUKE, R.A.; FLOWERS, P.J.; WOLFE, D.E. Children who study with piano with excellent teachers in the United States. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, v.132, p.51-84, 1997.
ERICSSON, K.A.; KRAMPE, R.T.; TESCH-ROMER, C. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, v.100, n.3, p.363-406, 1993.
EVANS, P.; MCPHERSON, G.E.; DAVIDSON, J. W. The role of psychological needs in ceasing music and music learning activities. Psychology of Music, v.41, n.5, p.600-619, 2013.
FLAVELL, J.H. (1976) Metacognitive Aspects of Problem Solving. In L.B. RESNICK (ed). The Nature of Intelligence. Hillsdale. NJ: Earlbaum, Wiley, pp. 231–35, 1976.
GRUSON, L.M. Rehearsal skill and musical competence: Does practice make perfect? In SLOBODA, J.A. (Ed) Generative processes in music: The psychology of performance, improvisation, and composition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
HALLAM, S. Professional musicians' orientations to practice: implications for teaching, British Journal of Music Education, v.2, n1, p.3-19, 1995.
HALLAM, S. Approaches to instrumental music practice of experts and beginners: Implications for Education, In H. JØRGENSEN AND A. C. LEHMAN (Eds), Does practice make perfect? Current theory and research on instrumental music practice, Norges musikkhogskole, Oslo, pp 89-108, 1997.
HALLAM, S. Instrumental teaching. Oxford: Heinemann, 1998.
HALLAM, S. Musical Motivation: Towards a Model Synthesising the Research. Music Education Research, v.4, n.2, p.225-244, 2002.
HALLAM, S. (2012) Commentary In G. MCPHERSON & G. WELCH (Eds) Oxford Handbook of Music Education, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
HALLAM, S. What predicts level of expertise attained, quality of performance, and future musical aspirations in young instrumental players? Psychology of Music, v.41, n.3, p.265-289, 2013.
HALLAM, S. Motivation to learn. IN S. HALLAM, I. CROSS & M THAUT (eds) Handbook of Psychology of Music (2nd ed), pp 479-492, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
HALLAM, S.; BURNS, S. Progression in instrumental music making for learners from disadvantaged communities: A literature review. Leeds: Opera North/Arts Council England, 2018.
HALLAM, S. et al. Changes in motivation as expertise develops: Relationships with musical aspirations. Musicae Scientiae, v.20, .n4, p.528-550, 2016.
HALLAM, S. et al. Are there gender differences in instrumental music practice? Psychology of Music, v.45, n.1, p.116-130, 2017.
HALLAM, S. et al. The development of practicing strategies in young people. Psychology of Music, v.40, n.5, p.652-680, 2012.
HALLAM, S.; ROGERS, L.; CREECH, A. Gender differences in musical instrument choice. International Journal of Music Education, v.26, n.1, p.7-19, 2008.
HARNISCHMACHER, C. The effects of individual differences in motivation, volition, and maturational processes on practice behaviour of young instrumentalists. In H JØRGENSEN; A LEHMAN (eds) Does practice make perfect? Current theory and research on instrumental music practice, pp 71-88. Norges musikkhgskole, Oslo, 1997.
HOWE, M.J.A.; SLOBODA, J.A. Young musicians’ accounts of significant influences in their early lives 1. The family and the musical background. British Journal of music Education, v.8, p.39-52, 1991.
JØRGENSEN H. Time for practicing? Higher level music students’ use of time for instrumental practicing. In H. JØRGENSEN; A. LEHMAN (eds). Does practice make perfect? Current theory and research on instrumental music practice, pp 123-140), Norges musikkhgskole, Oslo, 1997.
JØRGENSEN, H. Planlegges oving? (Is practice planned?) Oslo: Norweigian Academy of Music, 1998.
JØRGENSEN, H. Instrumental performance expertise and amount of practice among instrumental students in a conservatoire. Music Education Research, v.4, p.105-119, 2002.
JØRGENSEN, H.; HALLAM, S. Practicing In S. HALLAM, I. CROSS, I. & M THAUT (eds) Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 449-462, 2016.
KENNELL, R. (2002). Systematic research in studio instruction in music. In R. COLWELL & C. RICHARDSON (eds). The new handbook of research on music teaching and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 243-256, 2002.
KEMP, A. The musical temperament: Psychology and Personality of Musicians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
KILLIAN, J.N.; SATROM, S.L. The effect of demonstration gender on wind instrument preference of kindergarten, third-grade and fifth-grade students, Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, v.29, n.2, p.13-19, 2011.
LAMMERS, M.; KRUGER, M. (2006) Brass and Woodwind Student Practice Habits in Norway, Japan, and the United States. NACWAPI (National Association of Wind and Percussion Instructors) Journal, Summer 2006, v.54, n.4, p. 4-13, 2006.
LAMONT, A. Musical identities and the school environment. In R.A.R. MacDonald, D.J. HARGREAVES; D. MIELL (eds). Musical Identities (pp 41-59). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
LEGETTE, R.M. The effect of instruction on student self-concept and motivation. Missouri Journal of Research in Music Education, v.40, p.4-15, 2003.
MACNAMARA, A.; HOLMES, P.; COLLINS, D. The pathway to excellence: the role of psychological characteristics in negotiating the challenges of musical development. British Journal of Music Education, v.23, p.285-302, 2006.
MANTURZEWSKA, M. A biographical study of the life-span development of professional musicians. Psychology of Music, v.18, pp.112-139, 1990.
MCPHERSON, G.E.; MCCORMICK, J. The contribution of motivational factors to instrumental performance in a performance examination. Research Studies in Music Education, v.15, p.31-39, 2000.
MCPHERSON, G.; RENWICK, J. Longitudinal study of self-regulation in children’s music practice. Music Education Research, v.3. n.1, p.169-186, 2001.
MOORE, D.G.; BURLAND, K.; DAVIDSON, J.W. The social context of musical success: A developmental account. British Journal of Psychology, v.94, n.4, p.529-549, 2003
O’NEILL, S.A. The self-identity of young musicians. In R.A.R. MACDONALD; D.J. HARGREAVES; D. MIELL (Eds) Musical Identities. pp 79-96. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
O’NEILL, S.A.; MCPHERSON, G.E. Motivation In R. PARNCUTT; G.E. MCPHERSON (eds) The Science and Psychology of Musical Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning, pp 31-46. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
PATRICK, H. et al. Adolescents’ commitment to developing talent: The role of peers in continuing motivation for sports and the arts, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, v.28, n.6, p. 741-763, 1999.
PITTS, S.; DAVIDSON, J.; MCPHERSON, G.E. Developing effective practicing strategies: Case studies of three young instrumentalists. Music Education Research, v.2, n.1, p. 45-56, 2000a.
PITTS, S. E.; DAVIDSON, J.W.; MCPHERSON, G.E. Models of success and failure in instrumental learning: Case studies of young players in the first 20 months of learning. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, v.146, p.51-69, 2000b.
PRICE, H.E. Sequential patterns of music instruction and learning to use them. Journal of Research in Music Education, v.40, n.1, p.14-29, 1992.
SHELDON, D.A.; PRICE, H.E. Sex and Instrumentation distribution in an international cross-section of wind and percussion ensembles. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, v.163, p.43-51, 2005.
SICHIVITSA, V.O. (2007). The influences of parents, teachers, peers and other factors on students’ motivation in music. Research Studies in Music Education, v.29, n.1, p.55-68, 2007.
SLOBODA, J. A. et al. The role of practice in the development of performing musicians. British Journal of Psychology, v.87, p.287-309, 1996.
SLOBODA, J.A.; HOWE, M.J.A. Biographical precursors of musical excellence: an interview study. Psychology of Music, v.19, p.3-21, 1991.
SOSNIAK, L.A. Learning to be a concert pianist. In B.S. BLOOM (ed). Developing talent in young people, pp. 19-67. Ballentine, New York, 1985
STGEORGE, J. The subjectivity of musical learning: Understanding participation in instrumental music instruction. Unpublished PhD, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, 2010.
SZUBERTOWSKA, E. Education and the Music Culture of Polish Adolescence. Psychology of Music, v.33, p.317-330, 2005.
WYCH, G.M.F. Gender and instrument associations, stereotypes and stratification: a literature review, Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, v.30, n.2, p.22-31, 2012.
VARVARIGOU, M. Nurturing the twenty-first century musician through playing by ear from recordings in one to one and small group instrumental lessons. In E. LOPES (ed) Research Themes for the learning of musical instruments, pp. 171-196 Goiânia: Editora Kelps, 2017.
ZDINSKI, F.S. (1996). Parental involvement, selected student attributes and learning outcomes in instrumental music. Journal of Research in Music Education, v.44, n.1, p.34-38, 1996.
Copyright (c) 2018 ORFEU
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.